Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023

Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023

Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023

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Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023:- Today we are sharing an Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023. This Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023 for competitive Exams PDF for you. This Essay notes material pdf for UPSC 2023 For Competitive Exams PDF can prove to be important for the preparation of upcoming government exams like SSC CGL, BANK, RAILWAYS, RRB NTPC, LIC AAO, and many other exams. English Grammar Notes PDF Download for Competitive Exams is very important for any Sarkari exam.

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Essay on Materials Management

Essay Contents:

Essay on the Introduction to Materials Management
Essay on the Definition of Materials Management
Essay on the Objectives of Materials Management
Essay on the Functions/Scope of Materials Management
Essay on Inventory
Essay on the Systems of Inventory Control

Essay # 1. Introduction to Materials Management:

For running any industry or business, a number of resources are needed. These re­sources are popularly known as 5 M’s of any industrial activity i.e., men, machines, mate­rials, money and methods. All these re­sources, which are basic inputs, are impor­tant but their relative importance depends upon the particular type of industry and also other environmental factors.

Earlier, when many modern machines were not even known, whole activity was around men. But now the importance has shifted from men to machines and in the present environment, materials are the life blood of any industry or business and for their proper running, materials should be available at proper time in proper quantity at proper place.

Materials are any commodities that are used directly or indirectly in producing a product such as raw materials, component parts or assemblies. The materials require serious attention in any work of production.

Material forms the major proportion of the final product and total cost of production. Nearly 60 to 70% of the total cost of any product is because of materials. So materials offer a considerable scope for reducing cost and improving profit. An effective system of material control should be introduced to keep material costs within limits. This is possible only if a proper system of material management is introduced.

Materials management is one of the major areas covered by the process of management. The manpower in any organization is looked by personnel management. But for the efficient running of any organization, it is necessary that materials costs, its supply and its utilization are controlled in such a way which leads to maximization of profit and minimization of cost of production. Materials management covers all aspects pertaining to materials cost, materials supply and materials utilization.

Essay # 2. Definition of Materials Management:

Some of the definitions of materials management are:

Materials management involves planning, programming, organizing, directing, controlling and coordinating the various activities concerning the materials.

OR

Materials management is the management of the flow of materials into an organization to the point, where, those materials are converted into the firm’s end products.

OR

Materials management covers the whole range of functions involved in converting raw materials into finished products.

OR

Materials management is a function responsible for co-ordination of planning, sourcing, purchasing, moving, storing and controlling materials in an optimum manner so as to provide pre-decided service to the customer at minimum cost.

From the above-mentioned definitions, it is clear that materials management is concerned with effective control and management of materials right from first stage i.e. raw materials at time of procurement and up to the final stage of materials in the form of finished product.

Essay # 3. Objectives of Materials Management:
Some of the objectives of materials management are:

a. To maintain continuity of production by ensuring uniform flow of materials.

b. To minimize material cost.

c. To maintain good relationship with the suppliers of materials and also develop new suppliers for the products for which reliable suppliers do not exist.

d. To purchase the required materials at minimum possible prices by following the prescribed purchase policies.

e. To develop better relations with customers and suppliers.

f. To report changes in market conditions and factors affecting the concern.

g. To cut down costs through simplification, standardization and value analysis.

h. To supply materials of consistent quality i.e. of quality that meets user specification and is fit for service.

i. To ensure training and development of personnel employed in the department so that good industrial relations are maintained.

j. To maintain proper and up-to-date records of all stores transactions and purchases.

k. To assist technical/design department in developing new materials and products which may be more profitable to the organization.

l. To make economic ‘make or buy’ decisions.

m. To contribute in the product improvement.

n. To contribute in the development of inter departmental harmony

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Essay on Materials Management

Essay # 4. Functions/Scope of Materials Management:

The scope of materials management varies greatly from company to company and may include:

i. Materials Planning.

ii. Purchasing.

iii. Store Keeping.

iv. Inventory Control.

v. Receiving, Inspection and Dispatching.

vi. Value Analysis, Standardization and Variety Reduction.

vii. Materials Handling.

viii. Disposal of Scrap and Surplus, Material Preservation.

i. Materials Planning:

The function of material planning department is to plan for the future procurement of all the required materials as per the production schedule. At the time of material planning, the budget allocated for the materials will also be critically reviewed, for better control.

ii. Purchasing:

Purchasing function is one of the most critical functions as it provides the input for the organization to convert into output. Materials are the lifeblood of any organization. At the time of purchase, right quantity and quality of materials must be purchased at right time, at the lowest possible cost and select the efficient purchasing system, to derive maximum benefit. Purchase department is the unit of an organization that performs purchasing function.

The objectives of purchasing are:

a. To provide an uninterrupted flow of materials and services for company operations.

b. To find reliable alternative sources of supply.

c. To buy at the most economic order quantities.

d. To buy the best value: a combination of right quality at the best price with the best supplier service,

e. To maintain good relations with vendors.

iii. Store Keeping:

After the items are purchased, proper storage facilities must be provided so that, the wastage is reduced to a minimum. The manufacturing company appoints a person for careful storing and safeguarding materials in a store who is called storekeeper. Storekeeper is responsible for safeguarding the materials and supplies in proper place until they are required for production activities.

Storekeeping activities include:

a. Maintaining the proper record of materials relating to the receipt and issue of materials.

b. Checking the physical quantity of materials.

c. Preventing unauthorized entrance into the store room.

d. Maintaining the stock registers, entering therein all receipts, issues and balance of materials.

e. Checking and controlling losses due to theft, damage etc.

iv. Inventory Control:

Inventory control is an important function of materials management. The main objective of inventory controls is to keep the total cost associated with the inventory to a minimum. Inventory control includes deciding about the types of ordering system, fixing the safety stock limits, fixing up the reorder level and maximum/minimum stock level.

v. Receiving, Inspection and Dispatching:

The responsibility of receiving, inspection and dispatching department is to receive the materials when delivered by the suppliers. After receiving it, the quantity and quality must be checked. Production parts and materials are checked against blueprints and specifications. Non-production items are also reviewed. When once it is as per the specifications given, the goods will be accepted.

vi. Value Analysis and Standardization and Variety Reduction:

The value analysis and standardization offer greatest scope, in reducing the materials cost. It also reduces the number of varieties and also helps in finding the substitute for the materials at lesser cost.

vii. Materials Handling:

Materials handling is basically the movement of materials to various departments. Utilizing efficient handling of materials is a vital part of any industry as it provides a continuous flow of materials and reduces the stress of labour.

viii. Disposal of Scrap and Surplus Materials Preservation:

Finally the disposal of scrap and surplus must be done periodically to release the capital locked in those items

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