IAS Study Materials and Notes for FREE

IAS Study Materials and Notes for FREE

IAS Study Materials and Notes for FREE

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Civil Service India strives to provide you with as much needed study materials and GS notes to help you prepare for the IAS exam. We try to source out authentic study materials and place on our website for you to make its use. Here we are providing you free General Studies study material for the Civil Service Mains examination.We hope these notes are useful to you and you can supplement them in your preparation on General Studies. However, please note that many topics covered in the syllabus of General Studies papers may not be uploaded here, so please go through the syllabus first and check the listed reference here. You can make your own notes for the missing topics by going through the reference books listed here. Also do follow current events of national and international importance that we update every week just for you for free.


Current Affairs | Mains Syllabus of General Studies | Question Papers of General Studies | Suggested Strategy for General Studies | Civil Service Exam Book for General Studies

The written examination (main) will consist of the following nine papers, but only 7 papers will be counted for final merit ranking. For the rest two papers, the candidate should secure minimum marks prescribed by UPSC each year.

ecology, environment and disaster management  pdf

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  1. Indian History.
  2. Geography.
  3. Economics.
  4. Indian Polity.
  5. Environment.
  6. Science and Tech.
  7. Current Affairs.
  8. World History.
  9. Indian Society.
  10. Foreign Relations.
  11. International Affairs.
  12. Internal Security.
  13. Disaster Management.
  14. Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude.

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IAS Study Materials and Notes

Question 1. What Is Ecology?

Answer :Ecology is the field of Biology that studies the relations between living beings and between living beings and the environment.

Question 2. What Are Species?

Answer :Species is the set of living beings able to cross among themselves generating fertile offspring.This concept however does not apply to individuals of exclusive asexual reproduction and other definitions have been proposed. For example, “species is a set of living beings that evolve in a common manner all of them considered ancestors of the same type in relation to common descendants”.

Science Interview Questions

Question 3. What Is Population?

Answer :Population is the set of individuals of the same species found in a given place in a given time.

Question 4. What Is A Community? What Is The Difference Between The Concepts Of Community And Population?

Answer :Community is the set of populations of living beings that live in the same region and interact with each other.In Ecology population is a set whose members (living in a given place in a given time) are part of the same species. Community is a set of populations of different species (living in a given place in a given time).

Question 5. What Is The Difference Between Ecological Niche And Habitat?

Answer :Ecological niche is the set of peculiar activities, resources, and strategies that a species explores to survive and reproduce. Habitat is the place where the species lives to explore its ecological niche. In other words, it can be said that habitat is the “address” of the species and the ecological niche is the “profession” of the species.


Microbiology Interview Questions

Question 6. What Are Biotic Factors?

Answer :Biotic factors are the living beings (plants, animals, and microorganisms) that are part of a given environment. Image Diversity: biotic factors

Question 7. What Are Abiotic Factors?

Answer :Abiotic factors are the nonliving elements that constitute a given environment, like light, temperature, minerals, water, gases, atmospheric pressure, etc.

Environmental Science Interview Questions

Question 8. What Is An Ecosystem?

Answer :Ecosystem is a system composed of biotic and abiotic factors in interaction.

Question 9. What Is Biosphere?

Answer :Biosphere is the set of all of the ecosystems of the planet.

Biomedical Engineering Interview Questions

Question 10. What Are Autotrophic Beings? What Are Heterotrophic Beings?

Answer :Autotrophic beings are those that can produce their own food, i.e., that make organic material from inorganic compounds.Heterotrophic beings are those that need to incorporate organic material to nourish them. Therefore, heterotrophs depend on the production of the autotrophs.

Question 11. What Are The Processes That Autotrophic Beings Use To Produce Organic Material From Inorganic Substances?

Answer :Autotrophic beings make organic material by photosynthesis or by chemosynthesis. There are photosynthetic autotrophs, like plants, and chemosynthetic autotrophs, like some bacteria.Soil Science Interview Questions

Question 12. What Is A Biome?

Answer :Biome is a prevailing ecosystem constituted by similar biotic and abiotic factors present in one or more regions of the planet.

Science Interview Questions

Question 13. What Are The Major Terrestrial Biomes?

Answer :The major terrestrial biomes are tundras, taigas (or boreal forest), temperate forests, tropical forests, grasslands and deserts.

Question 14. What Are The Typical Vegetation And The Typical Fauna Of The Tundras?

Answer :Tundras have vegetation formed mainly by mosses and lichens. In the fauna the dense furred animals, like caribous, musk oxen and polar bears, and migratory birds are found.


Question 15. What Are The Typical Vegetation And The Typical Fauna Of The Taigas?

Answer :Taiga, or the boreal forest, is characterized by coniferous trees, pine forests. There are also mosses, lichens, small bushes, and angiosperms. In the taiga many mammals, like moose, wolves, foxes and rodents, migratory birds and great diversity of insects are found.

Geography Interview Questions

Question 16. What Are The Typical Vegetation And The Typical Fauna Of The Temperate Forests?

Answer :In the temperate forest, deciduous trees predominate. Mammals are found in great number, like bears and deers.

Question 17. What Are Deciduous Trees?

Answer :Deciduous trees are plants that lose their leaves in a period of the year. In the case of the deciduous of the temperate forest, the fall of the leaves occurs in the autumn. The loss of leaves is a preparation to face the cold months of the winter: roots, stem and branches are more resistant to low temperature and snow than the leaves; without leaves the metabolic rate of the plant is reduced; the decaying fallen leaves help to nourish the soil.

Cell Biology Interview Questions

Question 18. What Is The Typical Localization Of The Tropical Forests Regarding Latitude?

Answer :Tropical rain forests, like the Amazon forest and the Congo forest, are typically located in low latitude, i.e., in the equatorial and tropical zones.

Microbiology Interview Questions

Question 19. What Are The Typical Vegetation And The Typical Fauna Of The Tropical Forests?

Answer :In the vegetation of the tropical forests, broadleafed evergreen trees predominate. On the top of the trees, epiphytes and lianas grow. Many varieties of pteridophytes can be found in these forests.Regarding the fauna, the abundance, and diversity is also great: there are monkeys, rodents, bats, insectivores, felines, reptiles, aves, amphibians, and invertebrates, mainly insects.

Question 20. How Can The Abundance And Diversity Of Living Beings In The Tropical Forests Be Explained?

Answer :The biodiversity of these ecosystems can be explained by the great availability of the main abiotic factors for photosynthesis. Since these factors are abundant, plants can perform maximum photosynthetic activity, living and reproducing easily.With great amount and diversity of producers (autotrophs), the consumers (heterotrophic animals and microorganisms) also have abundant food and a complex food web emerges creating many different ecological niches to be explored. So it is possible the appearing of varied living beings as well as the existence of large populations.

Question 21. Why The Tropical Forests Are Also Known As Stratified Forests?

Answer :In tropical forests, tall trees of several species have their crowns forming a superior layer under which diverse other trees and plants develop forming other inferior layers. From the upper layer to the inferior layers the penetration of light lowers gradually and the exposition to wind and rain, the moisture and the temperature vary. Different compositions of abiotic factor condition the prevailing of different vegetation in each layer.

Question 22. What Is The Typical Vegetation Of The Grasslands?

Answer :Grasslands are mainly formed of herbaceous (nonwoody)vegetation: grass, bushes, and small trees.

Question 23. How Are The Grasslands Of North America And Of South America Respectively Called?

Answer :The steppe grasslands of North America are called prairies. The grasslands of South America are known as “pampas” (the steppe grassland) and “cerrado” (the savannah grassland).

Question 24. How Are Grasslands Classified?

Answer :Grasslands may be classified into steppes and savannahs. In the steppes, the prevailing vegetation is grass, like in the pampas of South America and in the prairies of North America. The fauna is mainly formed by herbivores, like rodents and ungulates. The savannahs present small trees, like for example the Brazilian cerrado or the African savannahs.

The fauna is diverse; in the Brazilian cerrado there are animals like emus, lizards, armadillos, jaguars, etc., and many types of insects; the African savannahs are the home of great herbivores and carnivores, like zebras, giraffes, antilopes, lions and leopards.

Environmental Science Interview Questions

Question 25. What Are The Typical Vegetation And The Typical Fauna Of The Deserts?

Answer :The predominant fauna of the desertic ecosystems is formed by reptiles, like lizards and snakes, terrestrial arthropods and small rodents. In these areas plants very adapted to dry climate may be found, like the cactus, that are plants that do not have real leaves and thus lose less water, along with grasses and bushes near places where water is available.

Question 26. Which Terrestrial Vertebrate Group Is Extremely Rare In Deserts?

Answer :Amphibians are terrestrial vertebrates extremely rare in desertic environments (although there are few species adapted to this type of ecosystem). Amphibians are rare in deserts because they do not have permeable skin and so they easily lose water by evaporation and desiccate. They also need an aquatic environment to reproduce, since their fecundation is external and their larva is waterdependent.

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